Active communication space Detection of a tonal signal against a continuous broad-band noise background will be effectively masked by only a relatively narrow band of frequencies centered on the tonal stimulus, namely the critical bandwidth Fletcher, Figure 8. Schematic for active communication space calculation. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics of all measured acoustic parameters were obtained and presented in the form of mean, SD, and ranges if they were normal distributed.
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Results Six hundred and thirty four whistles were recorded during 14 observation days, from which 33 whistles were successfully selected from two days in the Pearl River Estuary and whistles from eight days in the Beibu Gulf Table 1 for further analysis. Each successfully localized whistle was grouped according to tonal types. Site Date Sample rate Recorded whistles Localized whistles Flat Down Rise U-shape Convex Sine Sum PRE , 78 21 0 2 0 1 5 29 , 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 19 1 0 0 0 0 3 4 , 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BG , 35 4 3 2 3 3 4 19 , 49 2 2 1 15 1 2 23 , 28 5 5 1 1 0 0 12 , 6 2 2 1 3 1 15 , 55 8 1 4 9 1 0 23 , 8 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 , 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 66 5 3 2 2 2 9 23 , 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 13 12 14 33 4 16 92 Sum 66 28 28 64 15 41 Sound propagation modeling Sixteen whistles with estimated source distance from one of the 5 hydrophone channels close to 1 m were selected as a proxy for whistle sources and imported to the sound propagation model.
Figure 9. Table 2 Environmental parameters and the estimated sound propagation speed at the recording site of the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf. Acoustic localization Of all the analyzed whistles, the average estimated distance between the center hydrophone and phonating animals was 6.
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Table 3 Descriptive and comparative statistic of the whistle parameters and active communication spaces from Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf. Figure One-third octave band levels The average peak frequency across the one-third octave band levels for all the ms whistles slices across all whistles was 4. Active communication space We calculated the mean and maximum active communication spaces across the ms segments for each analyzed whistle.
Table 4 Apparent source level of dolphin and whale whistles. Active communication space Active communication space has been estimated for bottlenose dolphins Janik, a ; Jensen et al. Conclusions and implication of the findings Regulation of anthropogenic noise is often limited by insufficient data on marine mammal vocalization characteristics and on the impacts of noise on their biological functions.
Supplemental Information Figure S1 Power spectral density of ambient noise in Beibu Gulf at sea state of zero and hydrophone self-noise: The nominal self-noise level was obtained when the hydrophone was connected to the voltage pre-amplifier VP and was provided courtesy of the Reson company. Click here for additional data file. File S1 Sound propagation model: Click here for additional data file.
Additional Information and Declarations Competing Interests The authors declare there are no competing interests. Interactions between marine predators: dolphin food intake is related to number of sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
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Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus increase number of whistles when feeding. Aquatic Mammals. Au Au WWL. The sonar of dolphins. New York: Springer-Verlag; Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins. Principles of marine bioacoustics. New York: Springer Science; Critical ratio and critical bandwidth for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.
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