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Active communication space Detection of a tonal signal against a continuous broad-band noise background will be effectively masked by only a relatively narrow band of frequencies centered on the tonal stimulus, namely the critical bandwidth Fletcher, Figure 8. Schematic for active communication space calculation. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics of all measured acoustic parameters were obtained and presented in the form of mean, SD, and ranges if they were normal distributed.


Results Six hundred and thirty four whistles were recorded during 14 observation days, from which 33 whistles were successfully selected from two days in the Pearl River Estuary and whistles from eight days in the Beibu Gulf Table 1 for further analysis. Each successfully localized whistle was grouped according to tonal types. Site Date Sample rate Recorded whistles Localized whistles Flat Down Rise U-shape Convex Sine Sum PRE , 78 21 0 2 0 1 5 29 , 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 19 1 0 0 0 0 3 4 , 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BG , 35 4 3 2 3 3 4 19 , 49 2 2 1 15 1 2 23 , 28 5 5 1 1 0 0 12 , 6 2 2 1 3 1 15 , 55 8 1 4 9 1 0 23 , 8 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 , 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 66 5 3 2 2 2 9 23 , 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 13 12 14 33 4 16 92 Sum 66 28 28 64 15 41 Sound propagation modeling Sixteen whistles with estimated source distance from one of the 5 hydrophone channels close to 1 m were selected as a proxy for whistle sources and imported to the sound propagation model.

Figure 9. Table 2 Environmental parameters and the estimated sound propagation speed at the recording site of the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf. Acoustic localization Of all the analyzed whistles, the average estimated distance between the center hydrophone and phonating animals was 6.

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Table 3 Descriptive and comparative statistic of the whistle parameters and active communication spaces from Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf. Figure One-third octave band levels The average peak frequency across the one-third octave band levels for all the ms whistles slices across all whistles was 4. Active communication space We calculated the mean and maximum active communication spaces across the ms segments for each analyzed whistle.

Table 4 Apparent source level of dolphin and whale whistles. Active communication space Active communication space has been estimated for bottlenose dolphins Janik, a ; Jensen et al. Conclusions and implication of the findings Regulation of anthropogenic noise is often limited by insufficient data on marine mammal vocalization characteristics and on the impacts of noise on their biological functions.

Supplemental Information Figure S1 Power spectral density of ambient noise in Beibu Gulf at sea state of zero and hydrophone self-noise: The nominal self-noise level was obtained when the hydrophone was connected to the voltage pre-amplifier VP and was provided courtesy of the Reson company. Click here for additional data file. File S1 Sound propagation model: Click here for additional data file.

Additional Information and Declarations Competing Interests The authors declare there are no competing interests. Interactions between marine predators: dolphin food intake is related to number of sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series.


Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus increase number of whistles when feeding. Aquatic Mammals. Au Au WWL. The sonar of dolphins. New York: Springer-Verlag; Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins. Principles of marine bioacoustics. New York: Springer Science; Critical ratio and critical bandwidth for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.


The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. One-hydrophone method of estimating distance and depth of phonating dolphins in shallow water. Barco et al.

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Local abundance and distribution of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the nearshore waters of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Marine Mammal Science. Tolerance by ringed seals Phoca hispida to impact pipe-driving and construction sounds at an oil production island. Chen et al. Distribution and conservation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin in China. Integrative Zoology. Calibration and comparison of the acoustic location methods used during the spring migration of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus , off Pt.

follow url Barrow, Alaska, — Clark et al. Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: intuitions, analysis, and implication. Synchrony, social behaviour and alliance affiliation in Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus. Animal Behaviour. Davidson et al. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals. Acoustic source levels of four species of small whales. San Diego: Naval undersea center; Sound absorption in sea water. Fletcher Fletcher H. Auditory patterns. Reviews of Modern Physics.

Frankel et al. Whistle source levels of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico. Freitas et al.

Echolocation parameters of Australian humpback dolphins Sousa sahulensis and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus in the wild. Interactive behaviours of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus during encounters with vessels. Whistle emissions of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus differ with group composition and surface behaviors. Hayes et al. An inexpensive passive acoustic system for recording and localizing wild animal sounds.

He et al. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Scientific Reports. Helble et al. Hermannsen et al. High frequency components of ship noise in shallow water with a discussion of implications for harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Hoffman et al. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia. Evoked potential audiometry of 13 Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus gilli Marine Mammal Science.

Janik a Janik VM. Source levels and the estimated active space of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus whistles in the Moray Firth, Scotland. Janik b Janik VM. Whistle matching in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus Science. Signature whistle shape conveys identity information to bottlenose dolphins. Context-specific use suggests that bottlenose dolphin signature whistles are cohesion calls.

Jefferson Jefferson TA.

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  • Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters. Wildlife Monographs. Taxonomic revision of the humpback dolphins Sousa spp. Jensen et al. Estimated communication range and energetic cost of bottlenose dolphin whistles in a tropical habitat. Vessel noise effects on delphinid communication.